To guide your summer getaway book selections, try this formula: E=FB²
Jonathan Michael walked into one of the shop spaces on the top floor of a three-story business plaza in Abuja, Nigeria. He selected four soccer matches on one of three available desktops, made his predictions, and collected his receipt stub from the shop attendant.
It’s a weekly ritual for Michael, who works at a barbershop in the same plaza. He placed his first sports bet in 2017, and now spends no more than two dollars at his weekly visits.
Sports betting is a lucrative business in Nigeria and the most common type of gambling. In 2014, about 60 million Nigerians placed sports bets worth $4.99 million on a daily basis. That number steadily increased as more betting companies opened up outlets in similar shop spaces across the country.
Many participants see betting as a way to gain extra cash in the country’s struggling economy, and the prevalent soccer culture also boosts sports betting. Yet most sports gamblers lose money in betting.
More than 50 companies in Nigeria now provide access to betting in multiple leagues. Gamblers can predict the final score, a draw, or whether the home or visiting team will win, among other options.
Back at the bet shop, Michael agrees that economic hardship, backed by a love for soccer, pushed him to give it a shot: “At least if I could make money, it will help me.”
Yet in the past two years, he’s never won more than $4. Joseph Habu, a 26-year-old who comes in to bet at least four days a week, started playing the sport in 2016 and still has not secured a major win.
But it’s the few success stories that garner public attention. In March, one betting company announced that Michael Arowosegbe—a student—won $2,772 after correctly predicting 13 games.
Keleenna Onyeaka, an investment banking analyst, explained that, statistically, betting is designed for gamblers to lose. The companies begin the process by only revealing a fraction of the odds for each game.
“The reason they are able to do this is because they have a lot more and better quality data, which helps them get closer to the true probabilities,” he said. “Once they have this, then they can mathematically calculate the odds they offer us in order both to attract us to bet while staying one step ahead statistically.”
To keep business moving when soccer leagues are off-season, some companies offer virtual gaming, which uses computer-generated outcomes. They also offer betting on tennis and dog racing and through online casinos.
The international market has cashed in on the craze. British online betting firm Betway has opened branches in Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, and Ghana. Slovakian DOXXbet and Russian-based 1XBet also operate in Nigeria.
In Kenya, the government last year introduced a 15 percent tax on gambling operators and a 20 percent tax on bettors’ winnings.
Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni in January opted to stop licensing sports betting companies completely. He said sports gambling diverts the attention of youths from hard work and encourages capital flight by foreign-owned companies. He called for financial literacy efforts to educate Nigerians about the cons of gambling.
Modestus Ahamefuna, a full-time gambler, disagrees with the idea that gambling promotes laziness. The mechanical engineering graduate lost his job last year and embraced gambling to sustain himself while searching for another job.
Ahamefuna said it requires time and effort to study the game and successfully forecast the outcome. He once bet less than $7 and won $1,000. But the week I met him, he lost at least $140 and couldn’t afford to pay for cooking gas.
Jonathan Michael, the barbershop worker, hasn’t had any big wins, “but I keep on playing—[and] hopefully one day.”
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The Protestant Reformation taught us that “vocation”—a calling from God—belongs to all Christians, not just clergy. Often this vocation expresses itself in our work, and in the last few years Gene Edward Veith, Tim Keller, and others have written books that help Christians develop a theology of work and vocation. At the same time, another movement has spread in America with a different perspective on work. Its followers call it FIRE.
FIRE stands for “Financial Independence, Retire Early,” and when people say “early” they mean very early. Many people pursuing a FIRE lifestyle dream of retiring in their 30s. Most workers in developed countries labor for 40 years before retiring, but the FIRE folks want their own lives to be mostly retirement.
People in the movement often trace FIRE’s rapid spread to a single blog post. Pete Adeney worked as an engineer for 10 years before retiring at the age of 30 thanks to a high savings rate and a frugal lifestyle. In 2012 he wrote a post, “The Shockingly Simple Math Behind Early Retirement,” that advises consistently saving half of one’s income. By his calculations a typical working career need not last more than 17 years.
Adeney’s blog post went viral, and the FIRE community developed a rule of thumb: Have 25 times your annual expenses saved in investment accounts, then retire. But what will early retirees do? In a 2016 post called “Happiness Is the Only Logical Pursuit,” Adeney describes the human person as “nothing more than a complex machine made of meat,” and he suggests people should do whatever gives them a hit of dopamine.
One person at a FIRE meet-up in Houston, former car seller Chris Stam, told the group that anyone not working toward a 50 percent savings rate is not making progress. Stam retired last year at age 47 so he could “live life” while still young enough to enjoy it. He struggled to articulate what he does all day, but he assured everyone he stays busy: When he retired he gave himself “self-care” and likes choosing what he does and with whom he does it.
Tristan Sarremejane, a 29-year-old structural engineer from France, also was at the FIRE meet-up. He likes his work but doesn’t want to do it for the next 30 years because it leaves him insufficient time for leisure. He and his wife, a Texan, don’t have children yet, but he says a desire for family prompted his interest in FIRE. He fondly remembers his own childhood in France: His parents, who were teachers, had months of vacation time each year.
Some people note that focusing on early retirement can become a selfish squandering of talents. Vicki Robin, 73, wrote Your Money or Your Life in 1992, years before FIRE existed, but many leaders in the movement cite her book as inspiring their journey. In the book, Robin advocates getting out of debt, building wealth, and having a life of service to others: “We are not just lone wolves out there for our own personal agenda—for our own personal needs, wants, and desires. Lives shine when people discover how to be of service.”
Robin defines jobs as what we do for money, but “work” is something we do to improve our community and the world. Her emphasis on work echoes the Christian doctrine of vocation, and she’s right to reject the goal of retiring early to focus on ourselves. Christians can prepare for paying careers that satisfy and also allow us to be of service in business or nonprofit work—but there’s nothing wrong with seeking financial independence. What matters is whether our heart’s desire is to love God and our neighbors through our work, paid or unpaid.
—Collin Garbarino is a World Journalism Institute mid-career graduate
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As April 15, income tax day, approaches, Congressional Democrats are proposing significant increases in taxes to fund new programs. U.S. Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, D-N.Y., has proposed a 70 percent federal income tax on incomes above $10 million. Other Democrats have proposed similar levies. Proposals such as providing Medicare for all and the Green New Deal would require significant new expenditures and revenue to support them.
Is it really possible to tax the rich to fund fully such new initiatives?
Many Democrats certainly think so. New York Mayor Bill de Blasio says, “Here’s the truth, brothers and sisters, there’s plenty of money in the world. Plenty of money in this city. It’s just in the wrong hands!” Ocasio-Cortez says “a system that allows billionaires to exist” is immoral. U.S. Sen. Elizabeth Warren, D-Mass., says, “We are the wealthiest nation in the history of the world — of course we can afford these investments.”
Let’s try some hypothetical exercises to test out the theory. The Trump administration has asked for $4.7 trillion in spending for fiscal year 2020. One way to raise this revenue in a progressive manner would be to confiscate all income, starting with the wealthiest Americans. Based on the latest Social Security wage statistics tables from 2017, raising $4.7 trillion starting at the highest income levels would require all the taxable earnings of over 35 million Americans. The government would have to take away completely all taxable income of individuals earning over $65,000 in 2017 in order to cover the proposed spending for fiscal year 2020.
If, on the other hand, we were to “outlaw billionaires,” a good place to start would be the Forbes 400 list of wealthiest Americans. So what if we confiscate billionaires’ money until we have funded the 2020 federal budget? Surely that would cover years of federal spending and leave plenty left over for new programs. Or would it?
The budget proposal of $4.7 trillion annually represents $13 billion daily. If we start with Forbes billionaire No. 1, Jeff Bezos, with $160 billion in net worth, we can fund the federal government for 12 days. Now who’s next? Bill Gates and his $97 billion can take us about out to Jan. 20. Next up is Warren Buffet with $88 billion, who takes us out to Jan. 27. This isn’t going very well. We have reduced the three wealthiest Americans to food stamps, and we are not even out of January yet!
It is obvious where this leads. Take all the wealth of the Forbes 400 (a total of $2.9 trillion) and we can only fund the federal government for 225 days, or into the middle of August. Now all those billionaires are a welfare expense to the government rather than a revenue source for the government. And we also have bankrupted state and local governments that are equally dependent on the success of these wealthy Americans.
Progressives might protest and say corporations are not paying their fair share. When they lobby for tax loopholes and then use those loopholes, or when cronies in government give them preference over competitors, they deserve criticism. Many reforms are worth discussing, but remember: Corporations provide the majority of the income to the working Americans paying the individual income tax. The stocks and bonds of corporations are central parts of the pension, investment, and college funds of many Americans. Impairing or confiscating those investments will only increase dependence on government.